The basic winch is the one which works directly or with just one speed.
The force ratio comes from the expression:
When the turns of the shaft and the drum of the winch are different because there’s a gears reductor, the result is the GEAR RATIO. According to this:
These are teorical values, on this days all the winches reduce the turn speed with planetary friction bushings (gears with triggers and dented crowns) which friction trail sometimes is discontinued because they have lodged the trigger.